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Article by Susan Ballinger about Washington’s two native larch trees, Golden October.

Article by Susan Ballinger about White-bark pine, Take Action to Preserve Whitebark Pine.

Article by Susan Ballinger about a useful field guide, New Guide Points Out Our Native Shrubs, Trees.  

Conifers of WA’s Eastside Cascades  Susan Ballinger’s classroom presentation introducing conifer ecology and a photo field guide to Washington’s native conifers.

A narrative by Susan Ballinger, Native Conifers of Washington State- A summary of field identification traits 

An article by Sandra Strieby published in the Methow Naturalist (used with permission) Comparing Conifers and Broadleaf Trees: Why two completely different strategies for how to be a tree work equally well.

Oregon research ecologist and author, Chris Maser, explains the web of life within Northwest Cascade Mountain forests, and the interdependent relationships between mammals and trees, connected by soil fungi.


Susan Ballinger class presentation and photo field identification guide, Conifers of WA’s Eastside Cascades

Susan Ballinger’s photo field identification guide, Native Deciduous trees & shrubs Eastside Cascades

Glossary of Conifer terms

Glossary of conifer terms used in the readings.


Conifer identification resources A selected bibliography for the Pacific Northwest.

Trees of Washington WSU Publication – Keys to native conifers and broadleaf trees of Washington. Individual profiles of 32 native trees provide sketches of range, leaf and tree shape, fruit and bark characteristics. Washington State University Extension Free PDF download for 44 page booklet.

Washington Wildlife by Woodland Park Zoo, Montane Habitats (pg. 15-19) and Temperate Forest Habitats (pg. 27-28).  Use this as general background reading, providing a big picture overview for the course.

Northwest Conifers:  A Guide to Conifers of the Pacific NW.  This photo field guide covers Oregon and Washington, with species grouped by area and elevation.

Oregon State University Tree identification Home Page.  The purpose of this site is to help you identify common conifers and broadleaves in the Pacific Northwest.  

The Gymnosperm Database is a source of information on conifers and their allies with in-depth species descriptions.